The Tremiti Islands have been declared a marine reserve with D.M. of 14 July 1989. Since 1996 the area has been part of the Gargano National Park. The islands immersed in the Adriatic 12 miles from the Gargano coast are known for their beauty and for being one of the three Apulian marine parks. Subjected to the wave motion, they have been modeled in a suggestive succession of steep cliffs, rocky inlets, caves, natural arches and quiet coves, in a harmonious alternation that is repeated in the submerged parts, where slowly degrading rocky bottoms alternate with cliffs that sink dizzyingly, sandy shallows, pebbly bottoms.
This variety of morphological typologies results in a notable variety of animal and vegetable populations. The depths of the islands therefore constitute an area of very important naturalistic value. In order to preserve, protect and enhance this natural heritage, the “Isole Tremiti” Marine Nature Reserve was established.
The extraordinary clarity of the waters surrounding the islands makes it very easy to observe colorful sponges encrusting the rocks at a depth of a few meters; Annelids with their elegant and colorful sprawling fans; sea urchins that erode it by digging holes, colorful starfish, the toucan with its characteristic red-orange color.
Numerous green algae, such as the characteristic acetabularia umbrellas, the Udotea petiolata leafy and the articulated with flattened discs Helimeda tuna, Brown algae such as Padina pavonia, Dictyopteris polypodiedes and Dyctiota dichtoma.
Also very important is the presence of oceanic poseidonia, a real plant with flowers, stems and fruits.
Going deeper along the rocky cliffs it is possible to meet luxuriant and colorful fans of gorgonians. The rocky walls in the vicinity of Punta Secca di Caprara offer divers a vision of extraordinary beauty. Paramuricea clavata with its red and yellow colonies; Eunicella cavolinii with delicate yellowish colonies. In these beautiful yellow and red patches it is easy to find solitary polyps of a beautiful yellow color.
Also numerous and brightly colored are the Poliferae with Axinella cannabina, Axinella polypoides. Numerous damselfish swim among the natural fans of the gorgonians while in the ravines it is very easy to meet groupers and moray eels, crabs and lobsters, also banded bream and snapper are abundant as well as in the periods of amberjack pass.
The cave environments present in the Tremiti archipelago are of remarkable beauty. Among these, the cave of violets, the cave of the sea ox and the cave of the Rondinelle, are the most interesting for the community. In order to protect its vegetation and fauna, the park is divided into three areas, with some limitations.
In area A, which is an integral reserve, limited to the island of Pianosa, fishing, navigation and bathing are prohibited.
Zone B, which is a general reserve, relates to Caprara and a part of San Domino. Precisely on the island of San Domino, the affected area is between Punta della Provvidenza and Punta Secca. In Capraia it includes the area that goes from Cala Sorrentino to the Caciocavallo rock. Here underwater, sport and professional fishing is prohibited, as well as navigation, except that authorized by the managing body.
Area C, a partial reserve, concerns San Nicola and the other part of San Domino. Here, in addition to diving, sport fishing is allowed